A long black is made by pouring a double-shot of espresso or ristretto over hot water. Typically about 100 - 120 milliliters of water is used (3. 5 - 4 ounces) but the measurement is considered to be flexible to individual taste . The smaller volume of water compared to an Americano is responsible for its stronger taste. Usually the water is also heated by the espresso machine. A long black is similar to an Americano, which is made by pouring hot water over a double-shot of espresso or ristretto. Both retain the crema when brewed properly, though in the long black the crema will be more pronounced.